After the recent announcement of scala.meta, we've been getting questions about how different directions of development of Scala macros correlate with each other, and what's going to happen to them in the future. Today we would like to go through the list of our developments in the macro land, explaining what exactly they entail, and then outline our plans for the future of macros in Scala.
scala.reflect is an experimental API that
powers both compile-time metaprogramming (macros) and runtime metaprogramming (Java-style reflection)
in Scala 2.10 and 2.11. Most of the functionality of scala.reflect is implemented in a library shipped
in the official Scala distribution (
also features the macro engine, a dedicated submodule of scalac's typechecker, which can run methods written against the scala.reflect API
to analyze and generate code during compilation. scala.reflect is known to have a number of hard-to-fix issues
that make it hard to write robust code and preclude IDEs from efficiently supporting macros.
Macro paradise is a compiler plugin for Scala 2.10 and Scala 2.11 that adds new functionality such as quasiquotes and macro annotations to scala.reflect. It is hosted and published separately from the official Scala distribution, serving as a playground for features that might potentially be added to scala.reflect at some point in the future (that's exactly what happened to quasiquotes - first, they were part of paradise for Scala 2.10, and then they ended up being included in the official release of Scala 2.11). Consult the docs to find out what extensions to scala.reflect are provided by macro paradise for the version of Scala you're using.
scala.meta (formerly known as Project Palladium)
scala.meta is a new experimental API for metaprogramming that is being designed to overcome issues inherent to scala.reflect. This new API is going to greatly simplify writing macros, and its technical peculiarities show potential to enable solid tool support for macro writers. Even though scala.meta features some of the concepts present in scala.reflect (e.g. quasiquotes), it is significantly different in a number of ways (the degree of compatibility between the two APIs remains to be seen as we flesh out scala.meta). Most of the functionality of scala.meta will be implemented in a library shipped separately from the official Scala distribution, and a compiler plugin will be necessary to expand macros written against the scala.meta API. Unlike the other two projects, scala.meta doesn't have public releases yet, with the first technology preview scheduled to be released for Scala 2.11 this fall.
What will happen to macros in Scala 2.12?
We plan to support existing experimental functionality in both scala.reflect and macro paradise for Scala 2.12. However, we don't plan to introduce new features, so the functionality of macros in Scala 2.12 and Paradise 2.12 is going to be the same as in Scala 2.11 and Paradise 2.11 modulo bugfixes and stability improvements. In particular, it is highly unlikely for macro annotations to become part of official Scala distribution in 2.12.
Our main effort during the Scala 2.12 development period will be targetted at scala.meta. The first milestone release of scala.meta is scheduled for this fall, with a milestone revision of the new metaprogramming API and support for expansion of macros using the new API. By the time Scala 2.12 is released, we will try to prepare the first stable 0.x release of scala.meta (shipped independently of the official Scala distribution) achieving feature-parity with scala.reflect and reliably working in both Scala IDE and Intellij IDEA.
What will happen to macros in Scala 2.13 and beyond?
We think that macros are useful, and we would like to make them non-experimental in some future version of Scala. However, before macros become a standard language feature we need to make sure that macros work well with other features and tools. This has proven to be particularly difficult to do in the existing model implemented in scala.reflect, so stabilization of macros has to be delayed to Scala 2.13 or later until we figure everything out.
Concepts behind scala.meta look much more principled than scala.reflect, promising to address current problems that prevent macros from being a non-experimental language feature. We hope that practical evaluation of scala.meta will demonstrate that it can be a worthy successor of scala.reflect and become a standard for metaprogramming in future versions of Scala.